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您所在的位置: 南京文都考研 > 考研信息 > 报考信息 > 2023考研英语同源外刊12月文章:极端情绪对人生更有意义

2023考研英语同源外刊12月文章:极端情绪对人生更有意义

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2023考研英语同源外刊12月文章:极端情绪对人生更有意义

英语考研的备考,必须学生很多阅读文章外刊文章内容。由于阅读和理解考试真题里边的文章内容,大多数喜爱用外刊。因而,要想扩宽英文知识层面和改进外语水平,大家必须培养每日抽一点時间来说的习惯性!下面,我为众多2023研究生考试学生们得出-英语考研同宗外刊12月文章内容:极端化情绪对人生更有意义,供学生阅读文章。

2023英语考研同宗外刊12月文章内容:极端化情绪对人生更有意义

What does it take to live a meaningful life? In trying to answer this question, most researchers focus on the valence of the life experience: is it positive or negative?

怎么才能过上更有意义的日常生活?为了更好地回应这个问题,大部分研究者将研究关键放到了情绪效价上,即人的日常生活历经是积极主动的或是消极的。

Researchers who focus on positive emotions have amassed evidence suggesting that we are more likely to find more meaning in our lives on days when we experience positive emotions. In contrast, researchers taking a meaning-making perspective tend to focus on meaning in the context of adjustment to stressful events. These two areas of research are often treated separately from each other, making it difficult to answer the question about which valence of our emotional life—positive or negative—is most likely to be meaningful.

将重心放到积极主动情绪的研究者们搜集了很多直接证据,表明我们在历经积极主动情绪时,更易于在日常中寻找日常生活的众多实际意义。反过来,一部分研究者从人生实际意义造成的方向考虑,更关心在工作压力自然环境下大家所进行的更改对人生的实际意义。这两个位置的研究互不相关,造成大家无法分辨到底是积极主动情绪或是消极情绪更有意义。

Both perspectives may be at least partly right. In their classic paper, Roy Baumeister and his colleagues zoomed in on the different outcomes associated with happiness and meaningfulness. Whereas happiness was positively correlated with the frequency of positive events in one’s life and negatively related to the frequency of negative events, greater meaningfulness was related both to a higher frequency of positive events and a higher frequency of negative events, as well as reports of more stress, time spent worrying, and time spent reflecting on struggles and challenges. What’s going on here? How can meaning be positively associated with both positive and negative experiences?

这二种思想观点都最少有一部分是合理的。在一篇經典的毕业论文中,鲍迈斯特(Roy Baumeister)以及朋友对焦于相关幸福快乐和实际意义的不一样调查报告。幸福快乐与一个人生活中产生的积极主动事件工作频率呈成正比,与此同时与产生的消极事件工作频率呈成反比;殊不知,实际意义与积极主动事件和消极事件产生的工作频率均呈成正比,与此同时与造成工作压力和忧虑的时间段及其解决抗争与试炼的時间呈成正比。怎么会这样?实际意义是怎样与此同时与积极主动和消极感受造成关系的?

In a new paper, Sean Murphy and Brock Bastian suggest that a focus on emotional valence may have been a red herring for the field. By intentionally pitting “positive” experiences against “negative” experiences, researchers have focused on the difference between these experiences. However, Murphy and Bastian argue that this has neglected our understanding of similarities in how the positivity and negativity of experiences are related to meaningfulness. They raise the intriguing possibility that the more relevant factor may be the extremity of the experience, not the valence. Perhaps both extremely pleasant and extremely painful events relative to more neutral events share a common set of characteristics that might lead them to be found more meaningful.

在近日的一项研究中,艾利森(Sean Murphy)和巴斯蒂安(Brock Bastian)觉得,关心情绪效价很有可能会偏移研究方位。一直以来,研究者们根据人为因素地将“积极主动”历经和“消极”经历对立面,并致力于找寻他们中间的差别。可是,艾利森和巴斯蒂安觉得,这会忽视积极主动历经和消极经历与人生的意义中间,具备类似的关联。她们明确提出了一个有意思的理论,即与生活意义关联更密切的是高峰体验,而不是情绪效价。相对性于平时的事件,也许极其开心和极其痛楚的事件有着一些一同的特点,这也使他们越来越更有意义。

They set out to test this idea for the first time. Across three studies, they collected reports of the most significant events in people’s lives across the emotional spectrum and measured the meaningfulness of the experiences. In line with their prediction, they found that the most meaningful events were those that were extremely pleasant or extremely painful.

她们逐渐初次检测这一理论。在三次研究中,她们搜集了参加者一生中感情起伏最重要的事件,并且评定了这种人生历经的实际意义。研究的发觉和她们的预测分析一致,即更有意义的事件全是这些极其开心或极其痛楚的历经。

They also looked at various qualities of the event that might explain the impact of emotional extremity on meaningfulness. They found that extreme events were found more meaningful in large part because of their emotional intensity and the contemplation they inspired. In fact, they consistently found that positive and negative events inspired contemplation to about the same degree.

她们还研究了这种事件的各种各样特性,也许可以表明在其中的极端化情绪对实际意义的危害。研究发觉,极端化事件往往更有意义,非常大水平是由于它会导致明显感情,并会导致思索。事实上,她们注意到,积极主动事件和消极事件,几乎能引起同样水平的思索。

Their findings also point to the importance of intensity in building a meaningful life, a factor that hasn’t received as much attention in the field as the valence of the emotion. This work is important because it ties together literatures on meaning that have often been treated separately, or even in opposition, to each other. As the researchers note, the “commonalities reveal a more complete and nuanced picture about what determines the events we find meaningful and memorable.”

研究結果还强调,高峰期情绪针对搭建更有意义人生的必要性。可是,在这个行业,这一影响因素并没像情绪效价一样遭受广泛关心。这种研究的必要性取决于,它能将和实际意义有关的研究融合起來,而除此之外,这种研究被独立乃至是对立面对待。如同研究工作人员所提出的,“这种研究的关联性揭露了一个更为全面和严谨的景象,表述了究竟是什么决策了一些事件具备核心实际意义,且十分难以忘怀。”

Their findings have a number of important implications for our understanding of the good life as well as our understanding of human nature more generally. On the surface, it may seem perplexing that so many people intentionally behave in counter-hedonic ways, actively seeking out unpleasant experiences.

这种发觉也对大家了解日常生活的幸福和更普遍的人的本性,有很多关键的启发。这也可以表述一些从表面上看,十分令人费解的状况,例如,很多人积极以反奢靡之风的方法做事,积极追求完美不愉快的经历。

For instance, Paul Rozin and his colleagues found in their paper that 29 initially aversive activities—including watching frightening movies, viewing sad paintings, listening to sad music, eating spicy food, going on thrill rides and being physically exhausted—produced pleasure in a substantial number of individuals. Rozin and his colleagues ended their paper noting that if “we had a better understanding of the function of sadness, we would no doubt be able to make more sense of this.”

例如,在一篇毕业论文中,罗津(Paul Rozin)和同事们发觉,29种在最初让人抵触的主题活动,之后会让很多人觉得开心。这主要包括收看暴力电影、赏析忧伤美术作品、吃刺激性食物及其感受惊险刺激游乐设备和累得全身上下精疲力竭等。罗津和同事们在毕业论文最终写到:“如果我们能能够更好地了解忧伤的功效,那麼我一定会尝试从这当中得到大量的实际意义。”

However, the findings of Murphy and Bastian suggest that it’s not the sadness, per se, that is enjoyable, but the intensity of the experience that is enjoyable because it leads to a greater sense of meaning. This makes sense from a narrative identity perspective: our life story and our sense of who we are is a carefully constructed selection of meaningful events from our lives. The events that we find most worthy of incorporating into our life story may be those that are most intense. The greater contemplation associated with intense experiences may increase the likelihood that we consider such events self-defining.

可是,艾利森和巴斯蒂安觉得,大家并非在享有忧伤,反而是在享有高峰体验,由于这能产生很大的实际意义。这也是有些道理的,由于大家的人生小故事和自我认识,主要是由这种更有意义的精彩片段构成的。这些情绪波动较猛烈的事情,通常也非常值得纪录在人们的人生中。这种焦虑不安经历产生的很多思索,也增多了大家用这种经历界定自身的概率。

 

语汇:

1、perspective [pərˈspektɪv] n. 思想观点;发展前景;透视图 adj. 透视图的

2、neglect [nɪˈɡlekt] v. 忽略,忽视;粗心大意;漏做 n. 忽视,忽略;未被高度重视

3、characteristic [ˌkærəktəˈrɪstɪk] adj. 典型性的;独有的;表明特点的 n. 特征;特点;特色

4、contemplation [ˌkɑːntəmˈpleɪʃn] n. 思索;凝视;用意

5、nuanced [ˈnuːˌɑːnst] adj. 细微的;具备细微差别的

6、intriguing [ɪnˈtriːɡɪŋ] adj. 有意思的;美丽动人的 v. 造成…的兴趣爱好;方案策划诡计;通奸(intrigue的ing形式)

综上所述是-2023英语考研同宗外刊12月文章内容:极端化心态对人生更加有意义,期待对复习2023研究生考试的小伙子们有一定的协助!恭祝学生2023研究生考试凯旋而归!


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