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您所在的位置: 南京文都考研 > 考研信息 > 考研时间 > 2023考研英语同源外刊1月文章:奔牛节的启发

2023考研英语同源外刊1月文章:奔牛节的启发

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2023考研英语同源外刊1月文章:奔牛节的启发

考研英语阅读的发展,离不了每日依照自身的時间,去看看一定量的英文报纸和杂志期刊。可是,有一些学生很有可能不清楚怎样找这种报刊和杂志期刊的內容。下边,我为2023研究生考试者们,梳理出——2023英语考研同宗外刊1月文章内容:奔牛节的启迪,供学生参照。

2023英语考研同宗外刊1月文章内容:奔牛节的启迪

A Spanish tradition offers insight into how crowds behave

意大利一项传统式主题活动揭露了群体行为方式

Every year thousands of people converge on the city of Pamplona, in north-eastern Spain, for the opportunity to run for their lives as six fighting bulls are released to charge through the town. There are dozens of injuries every year, and there have been at least 15 deaths recorded since 1910.

每一年都是有不计其数的人集聚在意大利东北部地区大城市潘普洛纳市,便是因为等六头公牛出栏率后飞奔逃跑。自1910年至今,最少已经有15人丧命,每一年都是有数十人负伤。

But the event is of interest to more than just adrenaline junkies and animal-rights activists. A paper just published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences describes the insight the event offers into the psychology of panicked crowds.

可是,关心此项主题活动的不仅是追求完美刺激性的动物和人利益实践家。刚发布《美国国家科学院院刊》上的一篇毕业论文对焦虑人群的心态开展了讲解。

That is a useful topic to explore. Architects, civil engineers and urban planners must try to work out how people will behave in the event of a disaster like a fire, a flood or a terrorist attack so they can design their creations to avoid potentially lethal crushes. Unfortunately, solid information is hard to come by.

这是一个非常值得讨论的话题讨论。建筑设计师、工程造价师和城市规划师务必想方设法搞清楚大家在火灾事故、水灾或恐怖事件等灾害产生时的个人行为,那样它们能够作出对应的设计方案,防止出现潜在性致命性的踩踏事故。殊不知,这方面的靠谱数据信息难以获得。

Ethics-review boards, after all, are likely to frown on researchers putting volunteers into deadly danger simply to study how they might behave. But Daniel Parisi, a physicist and computer scientist at the Technical Institute of Buenos Aires, and the paper’s lead author, realised that the Pamplona bull-runs offered the perfect natural experiment.

终究,社会道德核查联合会很可能会抵制学者只是为了更好地科学研究青年志愿者的情形就将她们放置致命性的风险当中。而布宜诺斯艾利斯理工大学的科学家和电子计算机生物学家丹尼尔·帕里西(与此同时也是这篇毕业论文的一创作者)意识到潘普洛纳奔牛节为科学研究技术人员给予了一个自然实验。

Dr Parisi and his team went to two different rooftop locations in Pamplona in July 2019, and recorded footage of the runners as the animals were released. A wave of people running at top speed raced past their cameras a few seconds ahead of the bulls.

2019年7月,帕里西和他的精英团队赶到了潘普洛纳,她们在两处房顶搭起了监控摄像头,拍下了公牛出栏率后人群飞奔的影象。能够看见一群人快速闪出了画面,而只是几秒以后公牛就紧随而至。

The researchers brought their recordings back to the lab to calculate the velocities of the runners, the density of the crowd and the probability of a runner tripping and falling. They also examined the trajectories of the bulls, the responses of individual runners as bulls came near to them, and the relationship between runner-group density and velocity.

科学研究工作人员将录影带回试验室,测算出人群奔跑的速度、人群密度及其她们被摔倒或跌倒的几率。科学研究工作人员还剖析了公牛的轨迹、公牛逼近时大家的反映,及其人群密度与奔跑速度相互关系。

Perhaps unsurprisingly, the researchers found that runners picked up speed when the bulls drew near. Less expected was the finding that the speed of individual runners increased with the density of the crowd. At the crowd’s maximum speed of around four metres per second, density reached roughly one pedestrian per square metre.

科学研究工作人员发觉,当公牛逼近时,大家会加速奔跑速度,这也许不难理解。但出人意料的是,个人奔跑速度会伴随着人群密度的升高而提升。人群的比较大速度约为每秒钟4米,密度会做到大概每平米1人。

This finding is at odds with a long-held assumption in architectural and urban-design circles that people will slow their pace as group density goes up, in order to lower the risk of a collision, which could lead to a fall and, perhaps, injury or death as a runner is trampled by others.

这一发觉不同于工程建筑和大城市中国设计师一直以来的假定,即伴随着人群密度的升高,大家会减慢自身的步伐,以减少产生撞击的风险性,进而防止摔倒践踏而导致死伤。

Dr Parisi’s data suggests that groups of fast, crowded runners are indeed at risk: of 20 people who fell, all did so within a fast-moving, dense group. Most (14 of the 20) involved two or more people, with one person tripping another.

帕里西的统计数据表明,挤在一起迅速奔跑的确存有风险性:跌倒的20人都发生在迅速奔跑的聚集人群中。大部分(20人群中的14人)全是成双乃至大量人一起跌倒的,即一个摔倒另一个。

Yet it seems that, in the heat of the moment, people pay little heed to the danger of colliding with each other, and do not slow down. The onus therefore falls upon urban designers to work out how best to plan the construction of future alleys, tunnels, bridges and other passages that restrict flow. The only option may well be to make them wider.

殊不知,在极度恐慌之时,大家好像无暇顾及留意彼此之间接触的风险,,也不会减慢速度。因而,重担就落在了城市设计师的的身上,她们必须找寻最好计划方案来规划建设基本建设将来的小巷、隧道施工、公路桥梁和别的会限定人流量的安全通道。而仅有的方法也许是把他们建得更宽。

 

语汇:

insight into [ˈɪnsaɪt ˈɪntə] 深刻领会;洞悉

adrenaline [əˈdrenəlɪn] n. 肾上腺激素

ethal [ˈliːθl] adj. 致命性的;至死的;伤害巨大的

trajectory [trəˈdʒektəri] n. 路轨;运动轨迹

综上所述是得出的-2023英语考研同宗外刊1月文章内容:奔牛节的启迪,期待对2023研究生考试者们,在英语学科的复习上边有一定的协助!恭祝2023研究生考试成功!

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