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您所在的位置: 南京文都考研 > 考研专业知识 > 考研英语 > 2023考研英语同源外刊1月文章:人类需为AI武器时代重写战争规则

2023考研英语同源外刊1月文章:人类需为AI武器时代重写战争规则

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2023考研英语同源外刊1月文章:人类需为AI武器时代重写战争规则

考研英语阅读的发展,离不了每日依照自身的時间,去看看一定量的英文报纸和杂志期刊。可是,有一些学生很有可能不清楚怎样找这种报刊和杂志期刊的內容。下边,我为2023研究生考试者们,梳理出——2023英语考研同宗外刊1月文章内容:人类需是AI武器时期调用战事标准,供学生参照。

2023英语考研同宗外刊1月文章内容:人类需是AI武器时期调用战事标准

Whoever becomes the leader in artificial intelligence “will become the ruler of the world”, Vladimir Putin said in 2017, predicting future wars would be fought using drones. Even then, for all the Russian leader’s own ambitions, China and the US were the frontrunners in developing the technology. Yet four years later, the vision of autonomous fighting units is becoming a reality, with potentially devastating consequences. The computer scientist Stuart Russell — who will devote a forthcoming Reith Lecture on BBC radio to the subject — met UK defence officials recently to warn that incorporating AI into weapons could wipe out humanity.

2017年,弗雷德里希•普京大帝(Vladimir Putin)曾表明,谁变成人工智能行业的领导者,谁就“将变成全球的执政者”,并预知未来战事将由无人飞行器核心。就算在那时候,虽然这名乌克兰领导人员自身开疆辟土,但中国与美国已在开发设计此项技术性层面领先行业。殊不知四年后,独立战斗企业的企业愿景已经变成实际,并且很有可能产生破坏性不良影响。电子计算机生物学家布兰切特•拉塞尔(Stuart Russell)近期见面了英国国防部高官,传出了一个严格警示:将人工智能用以武器很有可能会摧毁人类。拉塞尔将要在BBC广播电台的“里思专题讲座”(Reith Lectures)就这一问题进一步论述自身的思想观点。

AI promises enormous benefits. Yet, like nuclear power, it can be used for good and ill. Its introduction into the military sphere represents the biggest technological leap since the advent of nuclear weapons. While atomic bombs were used on real cities in 1945, however, it took more than two decades before the first arms control treaties were signed.

人工智能有希望产生极大益处。殊不知,如同核能发电一样,它可以用于做善事,还可以用于做错事。它被引进国防行业表示了自核武器发生至今比较大的技术性飞越。殊不知,尽管核弹在1945年就被看向人类定居的大城市,但国际社会花了20很多年時间才签定第一个军控条约。

Nuclear weapons are also difficult and expensive to develop or obtain. By contrast, AI-aided arms — used at scale — could combine the power of weapons of mass destruction with the scope for cheap production of the AK-47. That opens the possibility of their use, even if not in their most sophisticated forms, not just by advanced economies but by “rogue” states and terrorists. And the world is starting to wrestle with how to control them while the technology is still evolving at lightning speed.

开发设计或得到核武器也十分艰难且耗费大。比较之下,规模性应用的人工智能輔助武器可以将规模性攻击性武器的杀伤力与便宜生产制造AK-47的经营规模结合在一起。这打开了他们被交付使用的概率——即使并不是以较繁杂的类型——不但被比较发达经济大国应用,也被“无赖”国家和恐怖份子应用。在该技术性仍在以雷电的速率发展趋势的与此同时,怎样操纵他们早已变成全球的难点。

The most immediate concern is “lethal autonomous weapons systems” (Laws), often dubbed “killer robots”. In fact, the term means any mobile platform — drone, android, self-flying plane — carrying a machine that can perceive its environment, make decisions on tactics and targets, and kill. Rudimentary versions exist today. The UN says Turkish-made Kargu drones incorporating image-processing capabilities were used in Libyan conflicts last year to home in on selected targets.

较立即的担心是“致命性独立武器系统软件”(LAWS),通常被称作“凶手智能机器人”。实际上,这一专业术语可以指一切带上可以认知自然环境、对战略和总体目标作出管理决策并开展杀害的设备的移动应用平台——无人飞行器、智能机器人、全自动航行飞机场。初中级版本号如今早已存有。联合国组织表明,土尔其生产制造的具备图象处理工作能力的Kargu无人飞行器上年在利比亚的矛盾中被用以锁住选中的总体目标。

Academics warn of swarms of cheap miniature drones armed with facial recognition and tiny bombs being used as mass killing machines. Many experts have demanded a ban on developing lethal autonomous weapons. A UN body has drawn up guidelines and worked on a potential embargo. Several military powers oppose a ban, fearing the loss of a chance to gain a military edge or that others would ignore a prohibition that would be near impossible to enforce.

专家学者们警示,配置面部识别系统软件和小型定时炸弹的便宜微型无人机机群正被作为规模性攻击性设备。很多权威专家规定严禁开发设计致命性独立武器。一个联合国机构早已拟定了基本方针,并专注于促进潜在性的禁令。一些国防大国抵制此项禁令,担忧丧失得到军事优势的机遇,或是担忧别的国家将忽视此项几乎不太可能获得实行的禁令。

Yet many countries have joined conventions on biological and chemical weapons, though these also offer cheap routes to mass lethality. The scientific community says it has ideas and lessons from other arms control efforts on how to devise and police a Laws ban.

殊不知,很多国家早已添加了相关生物体和有机化学武器的条例,虽然这种武器也为规模性破坏力给予了便宜方式。科技界表明,在怎样制订和实行对于“致命性独立武器系统软件”的禁令层面,她们从别的军事力量操纵勤奋中得到了一些启迪和经验教训。

Beyond killer robots, AI could be used to enhance or replace human skill in everything from operating weapons to intelligence gathering and analysis, early warning systems, and command and control. Dialogue is needed not just between the biggest military powers but more broadly on rules of engagement, what sort of wars countries are prepared to countenance in an AI era, and how to impose some transparency and constraints. Agreements are needed to keep humans “in the loop” in all forms of military decision-making.

除开凶手智能机器人,人工智能还能够被用以提升或替代各个领域的人类专业技能——从实际操作武器到情报信息搜集和剖析、初期警报系统及其指引和操纵等。不但必须国防大国中间开展会话,还必须就交战规则、世界各国提前准备在人工智能时期适用哪种战事、及其怎样完成一些清晰度和增加限定开展更普遍的会话。必须达成共识,让人类“自始至终参加到”全部方式的国防管理决策中。

Establishing such contacts will not be easy; China is reluctant to engage with the US even on nuclear arms. But past leaders agreed on “rules” of war, with at least some limited success, because they saw it as in their mutual interests to do so. It should be more than a naive hope that those rules can be updated for an age when humans are combining awesome destructive force with machines that can calculate faster than they can.

完成这类接触并不易;中国乃至在核弹问题上也不肯与美国接触。但以往的领导就战事“规则”达到了一致,最少获得了一些比较有限的取得成功,由于她们觉得那样做合乎彼此的共同利益。在人们将强劲的杀伤力与处理速度比自身快的设备结合在一起的时期,这种规则可以获得升级应当不只是天确实奢求。

 

英语单词:

1.academic: adj. 学习的,学术研究的;院校的,学校的;学习(考试成绩)出色的,善于学习的;脱离实际的,空话的 n. 大学老师,专家学者;(院校或学校的)课程内容;在校大学生

2.advent: n. 发生,来临,面世;基督降临节(advent);基督降临,基督教复临(advent)

3.contact: n. 联络,联系;接触,触碰;联系人,亲戚朋友,人际关系;见面,来往,接触;传染性疾病接触者;隐形眼睛;接入电,接触点,连接头;(无线)通讯 v. 联络,联系;接触 adj. 供联络的;接触性的,根据接触而起功效的

4.convention: n. 风俗习惯,国际惯例;交流会,聚会;条例,协约;(文学类、造型艺术上的)传统式技巧,传统式设计风格

5.defence: n. 防御力,防御物;国防安全;辩解,论文答辩;辩方,辩护律师;防御队友,控球后卫;得冠 v. 防御力,防御

6.destruction: n. 毁坏,催毁

7.destructive: adj. 毁灭性的,破坏性的

8.devise: v. 设计方案,创造发明;(根据遗书)遗嘱继承(房产);企图 n. (遗书中)遗嘱继承房产的条文 【名】 (devise)(美、法)德维兹(人名字)

9.economy: n. 经济发展;节约,简洁;经济仓 adj. 经济实惠的 【名】 (economy)(英)伊科诺米(人名字)

10.enforce: v. 执行,实行(法律法规、规章制度);逼迫,驱使;不遗余力让人接纳(规定,论点论据)

11.engagement: n. 婚契,定亲;幽会,承诺;对战,作战;表演每日任务;聘请,雇佣;参与,从业;(与……的)密切相关,(对……的)掌握;齿合;(与……的)密切相关,(对……的)掌握

综上所述是得出的“2023英语考研同宗外刊1月文章内容:人们需是AI武器装备时期调用战事规则”,期待对2023研究生考试者们,在英语学科的复习上边有一定的协助!恭祝2023研究生考试成功!

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