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您所在的位置: 南京文都考研 > 考研专业知识 > 考研英语 > 2023考研英语同源外刊1月文章:机器人自己进化会怎样

2023考研英语同源外刊1月文章:机器人自己进化会怎样

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2023考研英语同源外刊1月文章:机器人自己进化会怎样

考研英语阅读文章的发展,离不了每日依照自身的時间,去看看一定量的英文报纸和杂志。可是,有一些考生很有可能不清楚怎样找这种报刊和杂志的內容。下边,我为2023研究生考试者们,梳理出——2023考研英语同源外刊1月文章内容:智能机器人自身进化会如何,供考生参照。

2023考研英语同源外刊1月文章内容:智能机器人自身进化会如何

It might sound obvious that if you want to improve a robot’s software, you should improve its software.Agrim Gupta of Stanford University, however, begs to differ.He thinks you can also improve a robot’s software by improving its hardware—that is, by letting the hardware adapt itself to the software’s capabilities.As they describe in Nature Communications, he and his colleagues have devised a way of testing this idea.In doing so, they have brought to robotics the principles of evolution by natural selection.They also cast the spotlight on an evolutionary idea that dates from the 1890s, but which has hitherto proved hard to demonstrate.There is a wrinkle.The team’s robots, which they dub “unimals”, are not things of metal and plastic.Rather, they are software entities that interact with a virtual environment in the way that metal-and-plastic devices might interact with a real one.Unimals are pretty simple, having spheres for heads and cylinders for limbs.

假如你要改善一个机器人的手机软件,你也就应当改善它的手机软件,听起来好像明摆着的事。但斯坦福学校的阿格里姆·古普塔却不这样觉得。他认为还能够根据改善硬件配置来改善智能机器人的手机软件,这类对硬件配置的改善是让硬件配置去响应式手机软件的作用。据他与朋友在《自然通讯》中的叙述,她们设计方案出了一种方式来检测这一念头。在这里全过程中,她们把根据自然选择学说来完成进化的基本原理引进了智能机器人科学领域。一个相关进化的思想观点也因她们而遭受关心,这一思想观点可以追寻到19新世纪90时代,但直到今日都还难以被证实。她们想起了一个好点子。这支精英团队的智能机器人——取名字“unimal”(通用性小动物)——并不是用金属材料和塑胶做成的。智能机器人全是手机软件实体线,可以与虚拟环境互动,如同用金属材料和塑胶做成的设施可以与真正自然环境互动一样。unimal的样子比较简单,头是圆球,手臂或腿是圆柱形。

The environments through which they roamed were also simple, and came in three varieties: flat arenas, arenas filled with hills, steps and rubble, and ones that had the complexities of the second sort, but with added props like cubes that needed to be moved around.To begin with, the unimals were given a variety of randomly assigned shapes, but with identical software running each of them.That software was a piece of artificial intelligence called a deep evolutionary reinforcement learning algorithm, or derl.Newly created unimals started in a virtual boot camp, in which the derl learned enough about the world to face the challenges to come.They were then entered into tournaments.In groups of four, Dr Gupta put them through tests of agility, stability and ability to manipulate objects.Each group’s winner was allowed to “breed” by spawning a daughter with one mutation (an extra limb for stability, perhaps, or extra rotation in a joint, for flexibility).This daughter was substituted for the oldest unimal in the pool, assigned to a new group of four, and the process repeated.

他们数据漫游在其中的条件也非常简单,分成三种:一种很平整,二种铺满小山丘、阶梯和废墟;三种和二种一样繁杂,但还提升了像正方体那样必须被挪动的游戏道具。***,科学研究工作人员给unimal给予了各种各样任意分派的样子,但每一个样子都是有一样的手机软件运作。此软件是一款人工智能技术手机软件,称为深层进化增强学习优化算法,通称derl。创好的unimal起源于一个虚似的新兵训练营,derl可以对全球有充足多的认识以解决即将来临的考验。随后进行开展公开赛。古普塔博士研究生将她们分为四人一组,让她们接纳敏捷性、可靠性和控制物件功能的检测。每一组的获胜者都被容许“繁育”,造成一个含有基因突变的闺女(可能是为了更好地平稳,或是是为了更好地骨关节的附加转动,以更改操作灵活性)。这一闺女替代了在其中年纪很大的一个,被划分到一个新的四人组,这一全过程持续反复。

Unimals were withdrawn from the fray after ten generations of evolution, and Dr Gupta reckons about 4,000 varieties of them underwent training.The team were surprised by the diversity of shapes that evolved.Some had arms as well as legs.Others had only legs.There were bipeds, tripeds and quadrupeds.Some moved like lizards.Others resembled an octopus walking on land.Crucially, though, the researchers found that the most successful unimalslearned tasks in half the time that their oldest ancestors had taken, and that those which evolved in the toughest arenas were the most successful of all.In this evolution of unimals’ morphology to promote the ability to learn, Dr Gupta sees a version of something called the Baldwin effect.

通过十代的进化后完毕赛事,古普塔博士研究生可能他们中大概有4000个变异接纳了练习。科学研究工作组对进化全过程中样子的多元性觉得诧异。有一些不仅有手臂又有腿。别的的仅有腿。有两足、三足和四足小动物。有一些像蜘蛛一样挪动。有一些像在地面上走动的乌贼。殊不知,尤为重要的是,科学研究工作人员发觉,较取得成功的unimal学习任务的时间是他们较历史悠久的先祖常用時间的一半,而这些在较艰难的条件中进化出去的unimal是较取得成功的。古普塔博士研究生看到了鲍德温效用在比赛中的反映,在unimal的进化全过程中增进了自学能力的发展。

In 1896 James Baldwin, an American psychologist, argued that minds evolve to make optimal use of the morphologies of the bodies they find themselves in.What Dr Gupta has shown, though in software rather than in the real, biological world, is that the obverse can also be true—changes in body morphology can optimise the way minds (or, at least, derls) work.Even though he held the software constant from generation to generation, it became more efficient at learning as the unimals’ bodies evolved.Whether that discovery can be turned to account in the way robots are developed remains to be seen.But it is certainly, in the jargon beloved of some businessfolk, an out-of-the-box idea.

1896年,英国心理学专家勒布朗詹姆斯·鲍德温明确提出,人的进化是为了更好地比较大程度地运用她们所在的人体形状。古普塔博士研究生早已证实,虽然是在手机软件中而不是在实际的生物体全球中,反过来的情形也很有可能会出现的——人体形状的更改可以提升人脑(或是最少是derl)的工作方式。虽然他一代又一代地维持手机软件不会改变,但伴随着unimal的进化,它在在学习上也更为有发展。这一发觉是不是可以用作智能机器人的开发设计,也有待讲究。但用一些生意人钟爱的行语而言,这肯定是一个自主创新的念头。

综上所述是得出的-2023考研英语同源外刊1月文章:智能机器人自身演变会如何,期待对2023研究生考试者们,在英语学科的复习上边有一定的协助!恭祝2023研究生考试成功!

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