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您所在的位置: 南京文都考研 > 考研专业知识 > 考研英语 > 2023考研英语同源外刊1月文章:日本是如何应对人口老龄化的?

2023考研英语同源外刊1月文章:日本是如何应对人口老龄化的?

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2023考研英语同源外刊1月文章:日本是如何应对人口老龄化的?

考研英语阅读的发展,离不了每日依照自身的時间,去看看一定量的英文报纸和杂志期刊。可是,有一些学生很有可能不清楚怎样找这种报刊和杂志期刊的內容。下边,我为2023研究生考试者们,梳理出——2023英语考研同宗外刊1月文章内容:日本是怎么看待人口人口老龄化的?供学生参照。

2023英语考研同宗外刊1月文章内容:日本是怎么看待人口人口老龄化的?

Ever since 1495 residents of Gojome, a town in northern Japan, have gathered for a morning market. On a recent weekday, along a street of closed shops with almost no people, elderly sellers lay out their autumnal wares: mushrooms and chestnuts, okra, aubergines and pears. It was not always so empty, sighs Ogawa Kosei, who runs a bookshop on the street. He points to pictures his father took that show the scene packed with shoppers.

自1495年至今,日本北边城镇五城目地住户都是会去菜市赶集日。而在近点的一个工作中日,在一条店铺都关了门、几乎空无一人的街道办,上年龄的小摊贩摆出了她们的秋天产品:菌类、板栗、黄秋葵、四季豆和梨。在这条路上运营着一家图书店的小川光世感慨道,这儿之前没那么空的。他指向他爸爸拍的多张相片讲到,这儿摆满了前去买东西的人。

The population of Gojome has shrunk by half since 1990. More than half its residents are over 65, making it one of the oldest towns in Akita, the oldest prefecture in Japan, which is in turn the world’s oldest country. Yet Gojome is less an outlier than a portent.

自1990年至今,五城目地人口降低了一半。超出一半的住户年纪在65岁以上,这使它变成秋田县较大龄的城镇之一。殊不知,与其说是五城目是个除外,不如说是这也是一种征兆。

According to the UN, every country is experiencing growth in the size and proportion of its elderly population; by 2050 one in six people in the world will be over 65, up from one in eleven in 2019. The UN also projects that 55 countries, including China, will see their populations decline between now and 2050.

据联合国组织称,每一个国家的老年人人口经营规模和占比都是在提高;到2050年,全世界65岁以上人口的占比将从2019年的十一分之一升高至六分之一。联合国组织还预估,从如今到2050年,包含我国以内的55个我国的人口都将发生降低。

Demographic change has two drivers often lumped together: rising longevity and a falling birth rate. Their convergence demands “a new map of life”, says Akiyama Hiroko, founder of the University of Tokyo’s Institute of Gerontology. Infrastructure created when the population was younger and the demographic pyramid sturdier must be redesigned, from health care to housing to transport.

人口构造的转变通常有两个互相累加的推动要素:使用寿命的增加和生育率的降低。东京大学老年学研究室的创办人秋山广子说,二者的结合必须“一幅新的性命地形图”。从保健医疗到住宅再到道路运输,这些在人口更年青和人口埃及金字塔更牢固时创建的基础设施建设务必再次设计方案。

The new reality demands a “completely different way of thinking”, says Kashiwa Kazuyori, head of Gojome’s town-planning department. When he started work in the 1970s, the focus was on growth. Now it is about managing decline.

五城目地城市规划建设部门负责人柏和吉表明,新的实际必须一种“彻底不一样的思维模式”。 当他在上世纪70时代开始工作时,关键取决于提高。而如今的问题是怎么看待衰落。

Part of the challenge is that demographic change affects everyone differently. Two towns or regions may look similar from a distance, but have distinct historical, cultural and environmental conditions; two individuals may be the same age, make the same money and live on the same street, yet have different mental and physical health.

考验一定水平上取决于人口转变对每一个人的危害不一样。2个城镇或地域从不远处看很有可能类似,但却拥有不一样的历史时间、文化艺术和自然环境标准;两人很有可能年纪同样、收益同样、日常生活在同一条街上,但她们的身体健康情况却不一样。

“We often miss the context,” says Kudo Shogo of Akita International University. He is one of scores of young outsiders who have been welcomed to Gojome, which was a trading hub at the crossroads of farm districts. Comparable farm-focused neighbours have been less open to incomers.

秋田国际大学的工藤正吾说:“大家常常忽视了环境。”五城目是坐落于农业地域类型交界处的貿易核心区,而他是应邀赶到这一的年青外来者之一。周边相近的以农牧业为主导的城镇对外来者也不那麼对外开放。

That makes designing national policy difficult. “There’s not a one-size-fits-all model,” says Iio Jun, a political scientist at GRIPS. While the national government is responsible for finance, including pensions, the new map of life is best drawn from the ground up. Many ideas come from listening to citizens, says Ms Akiyama. “They know what the issues are—and many times they know how to solve them.”

这促使制订国家新政策越来越艰难。日本政策研究大学院高校的政治学家饭尾淳说:“并没有一个放之四海而皆准的方式。”尽管中央承担包含养老保险金以内的财政局,但更好的生活地形图不错是以底部逐渐制作。秋山广子表明,很多念头都来自于聆听中国公民的建议。“她们了解问题是啥,并且许多情况下她们了解如何解决问题。”

One issue is how ageing is discussed: as a problem or a burden. “Older people feel they’re not needed by society,” laments Hatakeyama Junko, the 70-year-old head of Akita Partnership, a non-profit that manages a community centre.

在其中一个问题是怎样探讨人口老龄化:是将它做为一个问题或是一种压力。今年已经70岁的鸠山俊子是秋田协作机构(管理方法着一个社区中心的非营利性组织)的责任人,他感慨道:“老人一直感觉社会发展不用她们。”

Longevity is not itself a problem—it should be celebrated. The problems arise when people live long but unhealthy, lonely, or dependent lives. The goal in Japan has shifted from increasing life expectancy to enhancing the “healthy, autonomous life expectancy”, says Ms Akiyama.

长命自身并并不是问题——反过来应当非常值得庆贺。但当大家过着长命而不健康、孤单或依靠他人的生活时,问题就产生了。秋山广子表明,日本的总体目标早已从提升预期寿命转为提升“身心健康、独立的预期寿命”。

The other key is staying healthy, physically and mentally. Wiser municipalities focus on preventive care. At the Kadokawa Care Centre, a sleek facility in a former school in Toyama, north-west of Tokyo, septuagenarians, octogenarians and nonagenarians splash through a swimming pool and pump away at exercise machines.

另一个重点在于维持身体健康。聪明的市政当局重视疾病防治。坐落于日本东京北部富山市的角川医护核心是由一所废弃学校更新改造而成的清雅设备。在这儿,你能见到七旬乃至九旬老人在游泳池里嬉戏,在健身器械上锻练。

“If not for this place, I’d be in a nursing home,” gushes Kyoda Taketoshi, an 82-year-old. The socialisation is no less important. “It cost a lot to build this place, but it was worth it,” says Saito Yoneaki, 80, before skipping off to join friends in the sauna.

82岁的京田武通对于此事赞叹不已:“要是没有这个地方,你以为就需要去敬老院了。”社交媒体一样关键。“建这个地方花了很多钱,可是很非常值得。” 80岁的齐藤优内基边说边急着和小伙伴们去汗蒸了。

 

语汇:

portent [ˈpɔːrtent] n. 征兆;预兆;征兆

lament [ləˈment] n. 悲歌;悼文 v. 对……表明心寒;埋怨

综上所述是得出的-2023英语考研同宗外刊1月文章内容:日原是怎么看待老龄化的?期待对2023研究生考试者们,在英语学科的复习上边有一定的协助!恭祝2023研究生考试成功!

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