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您所在的位置: 南京文都考研 > 考研专业知识 > 考研专业课 > 江苏文都:2023考研英语同源外刊12月文章:印度为何难以废除种姓制度?

江苏文都:2023考研英语同源外刊12月文章:印度为何难以废除种姓制度?

距2021年考研倒计时

江苏文都:2023考研英语同源外刊12月文章:印度为何难以废除种姓制度?

英语考研的备考,必须学生很多阅读文章外刊文章内容。由于阅读和理解考试真题里边的文章内容,大多数喜爱用外刊。因而,要想扩宽英文知识层面和改进外语水平,大家必须培养每日抽一点時间来说的习惯性!下面,我为众多2023研究生考试学生们得出-英语考研同宗外刊12月文章内容:印度的为什么无法废止种姓规章制度?供学生阅读文章。

2023英语考研同宗外刊12月文章内容:印度的为什么无法废止种姓规章制度?

The evil of India’s caste practice is almost as old as the gods, and is the most noxious and evolved example today of how humans attempt to impose superiority and suffering on others by virtue of their birth. Hindu texts speak of four tiers, or varnas, making up a broader caste pyramid in society.

印度的种姓规章制度罪孽之历史时间几乎可以追朔至诸神的问世,它是现如今人们尝试凭着出生将自豪感和痛楚强加在自己的较狠毒、较究极的事例。印度教经咒提及了四个级别(即瓦尔纳规章制度),组成了普遍出现于社会发展的种姓埃及金字塔。

On top are the Brahmins or priestly caste, the Kshatriyas or warrior class and the Vaisyas or merchant class. At the bottom come the Shudras or labouring castes. The rest do not even count: outcastes.

顶层种姓为印度教(僧人皇室)、刹帝利(国防皇室)、吠舍(生意人阶级)。下一层种姓为婆罗门(工作阶级)。其他的人乃至算不上人民:她们被排出在四大种姓以外。

The British Raj incorporated varnas into its imperial system of rule, perpetuating the caste system, with the outcaste “untouchables”, now known as Dalits, facing immense discrimination for their “polluted” labours, including the removal of human waste.

法国殖民将种姓规章制度列入其王国执政管理体系,使种姓规章制度得到持续,被清除在外面的“贱民”(即达利特),她们由于干着“脏累”的工作中(包含清除人们粪便)而受人岐视。

To their credit, the founders of the Indian republic confronted the iniquity. The affirmative action enshrined in India’s constitution, mostly written by a Dalit intellectual, B.R. Ambedkar, was a world first.

值得称赞的是,印度共和国的dnf***面对了这类罪孽。由达利特读书人比姆拉奥·拉姆吉·安贝德卡尔拟定的印度宪法也全世界创新地发布了平权行为。

The “reservation” policy is a prodigious quota system for public jobs, places in publicly funded colleges and many elected assemblies. The purpose is to give a leg-up to Dalits, who account for 232m of India’s 1.4bn population today, as well as to the 120m-odd adivasis, tribal groups who live mainly in remote parts of the country.

“保留”规章制度是一个非常庞大的公共性岗位(包含公立大学的入校配额和很多民选议院的名额)配额制规章制度。其意义是协助14亿欧洲人中的2.32亿达利特和1.2亿土著(关键生话在印度的边远地区)。

These are the “scheduled” castes and tribes. Affirmative action has since expanded. A commission of inquiry in the 1980s deemed 52% of Indians to be members of a new category, “other backward classes”, eligible for reserved places. The Supreme Court subsequently ruled that no more than 50% of public jobs in all could be reserved. But states often breach the limit.

这种就是“表列”种姓和“表列”部族。自此,平权行为有一定的扩张。20个世纪80时代,一个检查联合会觉得,可以将52%的欧洲人列入一个新的类型,即“别的落伍阶级”,这种将有机会得到保留配额。人民法院接着判决,可以保留不超过50%的公共性岗位。但各邦常常会提升这一限定。

Other castes are lobbying to be classified as backward and so eligible for quotas. They include groups that sociologists describe as “dominant”, such as the landowning Patidars of Gujarat, the Jats of Haryana and the Marathas of Maharashtra.

别的种姓已经劝谏,期待自身所处的种姓可以被归纳为落伍种姓,那样她们就会有资质得到配额制。主要包括被理论家叙述为“占主导性”的人群,如有着土地资源的古吉拉特邦人、哈里亚纳邦的贾特人与马哈拉施特拉邦的马拉地人。

Some of their protests in recent years have been both huge and violent. And just last month a desire for expanded reservations was behind a political delegation to Delhi from the northern state of Bihar that called for a national census on caste.

近些年,她们发动了一些经营规模极大、充斥着暴力行为的强烈抗议主题活动。就在上次,一个来源于北边比哈尔邦的政冶访问团赶到贝尔格莱德,号召开展全国人口种姓调查,这身后体现了她们需要提升保留配额的心愿。

A motivation for such landed castes, says Himanshu, a development economist at Jawaharlal Nehru University in Delhi, is stagnating farm incomes following relatively prosperous decades. Meanwhile, slowing economic reforms mean that urban opportunities for young people coming from the countryside are limited. Unemployment is high.

新德里贾瓦哈拉尔·尼赫鲁大学的发展趋势经济师希曼舒说,这种有着土地资源的种姓人群往往会那么做,是由于在相对性兴盛的几十年后,农牧业收益提高缓慢。此外,经济改革的变缓代表着来源于乡村的年轻朋友在大城市的可能比较有限。失业人数持续上升。

Cushy jobs in government become the main hope for advancement. But the absurdity only grows. With unofficial surveys of caste suggesting that over half of the country might count as “backward”, the portion of the population claiming to be eligible for reservation potentially exceeds 80%—implying affirmative action not for a minority but for the majority.

政府部门中轻松的工作变成大家追求完美的总体目标。但荒诞的事儿只能愈来愈多。依据第三方的种姓统计显示,所在国一半以上的人口数量很有可能被视作落伍种姓,宣称有资质申请办理保留配额的人口比例很有可能突破80%——这代表着平权行为并不是对于少数人,反而是对于大部分人。

It is not clear how many socio-economic problems reservations have solved—not least because successive governments have been singularly incurious about their efficacy. The measures have fostered a lower-caste bourgeoisie. Yet strong economic growth after 1990 has done much more to reduce poverty.

现阶段尚不清楚保留规章制度解决了是多少社会发展金钱问题,——特别是在是由于历年政府部门都对其实效性不闻不问。这种对策激发了一个低种姓资产阶级革命。事实上,1990年后强悍的经济发展为降低贫穷作出了更高的奉献。

Meanwhile, inequality, both between and within caste groups, has actually grown. Intermarriage between castes remains rare. Housing segregation by caste is rife. You can be lynched for marrying above your caste, refusing to work for the local landed castes or even drinking from the village well.

此外,各种姓中间以及结构的不公平事实上有一定的加重。种姓中间的联姻依然非常少见。按种姓区划的日常生活地区防护十分广泛。你很有可能会由于与高过你种姓的人完婚、回绝为本地高种姓大地主干活儿、乃至喝村子里的井水而被处以私刑。

 

语汇:

entrenched [ɪnˈtrentʃt] adj. 固步自封的;建立的

prodigious [prəˈdɪdʒəs] adj. 令人震惊的;奇特的;极大的

stagnate [ˈstæɡneɪt] v. 停滞不前;堵塞;使低迷

incurious [ɪnˈkjʊriəs] adj. 不关注的;没什么兴趣的

bourgeoisie [ˌbʊrʒwɑːˈziː] n. 资产阶级革命;中产阶层

lynch [lɪntʃ] v. 处以私刑

综上所述是-2023英语考研同宗外刊12月文章内容:印度的为什么无法废止印度种姓制度?期待对复习2023研究生考试的小伙子们有一定的协助!恭祝学生2023研究生考试凯旋而归!


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